Best True Health
Welcome at » Diabetes
In a study published in the Journal of Nutrition, researchers evaluated the effects of grape polyphenols in adult men classified with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a name for a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the risk for coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.
Participants in this double-blind, crossover study included 24 men aged 30-70 years of age who were randomly assigned to consume either a grape polyphenol product or a placebo for 30 days. There was a 3 week wash-out period between treatments. The men maintained their normal physical activity level and normal diet. They also were told to avoid polyphenol-rich food during the trial period.
At the end of each dietary period, blood pressure was measured and several different tests were used to analyze vascular function. When compared to the placebo period, the grape polyphenol treatment period resulted in lower systolic blood pressure and an increased blood flow in the brachial (arm) arteries. An indicator of blood platelet “stickiness”, known as sICAM-1, was also reduced during the polyphenol treatment period.
The results of this study indicate that grape polyphenols may positively influence vasorelaxation, blood pressure, and lower circulating cell adhesion molecules, improving overall vascular health and function, especially in men with metabolic syndrome.
Barona J, Aristizabal JC, Blesso CN, Volek JS, Fernandez ML. Grape polyphenols reduce blood pressure and increase flow-mediated vasodilation in men with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2012;142(9):1626-32.

For those with diabetes, folic acid supplementation may be beneficial in reducing the risk of stroke.

 

Folic acid is a derivative of folate (an essential B vitamin) and is an essential nutrient which has been linked to numerous health benefits. It is important enough that many governments require grains to be fortified with folate/folic acid to provide their citizens with regular, daily access to this important vitamin.
In countries with low access to folate, research has demonstrated an incredible reduction of incidences of neural tube defects (NTDs) in infants whose mothers had access to folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. Folic acid supplementation has proven to be a safe, inexpensive, and effective way to reduce the risk of NTDs and other birth defects in third-world countries and at-risk populations all around the world.
Folic acid supplementation has also been purported to improve heart health. The American Heart Association (AHA) published an article last year exploring the decrease in congenital heart defects associated with folic-acid supplementation and folic-acid-fortified foods. This connection between the B vitamin and heart health suggests that folic acid can work preventatively with regards to stroke and myocardial infarction, otherwise known as heart attack.
Diabetes, which is characterized by high blood glucose concentrations during and after periods of fasting, is a known risk factor for stroke. Researchers at several universities and hospitals in China hypothesized about the link between folic acid supplementation and the first stroke associated with elevated blood glucose levels. They performed a randomized double-blind study over the course of several years.
Participants in this study were men and women between the ages of 45 and 75 with hypertension, who were diagnosed as diabetic (type 2 diabetes mellitus) or normoglycemic prior to the study.
The subjects were provided with either a daily oral dose of 10mg enalapril and 0.8mg folic acid, or 10 mg enalapril only. Follow-up visits for each participant were scheduled every three months for the duration of the study (median duration = 4.5 years).
Results indicate that, for any given glucose category (hypoglycemic, normoglycemic, diabetic), risk of stroke was significantly reduced by folic acid supplementation. Those with fasting glucose blood levels indicating diabetes showed the greatest risk reduction due to folic acid supplementation.
From the results of this study, it can be inferred that folic acid supplementation may be beneficial in reducing the risk of stroke for those with diabetes. Increasing the amount of folic in the diet should be a priority for everyone; however, without regular access to folate-fortified grains, this goal can be hard to achieve. Folic acid supplements can be a great way to regularly meet the daily recommended value of this essential nutrient.
Xu RB, Kong X, Xu BP, et al. Longitudinal association between fasting blood glucose concentrations and first stroke in hypertensive adults in China: effect of folic acid intervention.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017;105(3):564-570. doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.145656. Folic acid fortified food linked to decrease in congenital heart defects.

 

Although there are a few published reports regarding the effect of green tea on insulin sensitivity and glucose control in humans, the results have been inconsistent.

In a new study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers aimed to more accurately quantify the effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity.

Researchers completed a thorough literature search to find all randomized controlled trials that included information on the effects of green tea and green tea extracts on insulin sensitivity and glucose control in humans.

There were 17 trials, including a total of 1,133 subjects that met the criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The studies were mostly of a short duration, and 7 of the studies were considered of high quality.

Overall, green tea consumption significantly reduced fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c (a long-term measure of blood glucose control). These results were more significant in studies including subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome, and in subject with higher catechin (a compound in green tea) intakes. When only the high quality studies were included, green tea significantly reduced fasting insulin concentrations.

The results of this meta-analysis suggest that green tea intake may lower fasting glucose, insulin and HbA1c concentrations, especially in people at risk for metabolic syndrome. Researchers noted that long-term randomly controlled trials of higher quality should be conducted to further confirm these findings.

Kai Liu et al. Effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trial.

LemonPrevious observational studies have suggested that a higher intake of vitamin C is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, primarily through effects on the endothelium (a thin layer of cells lining the interior of blood vessels). The endothelium has many important functions that include maintaining the flexibility of blood vessels and modulating the activity of certain white blood cells that are a significant part of the immune system.

In a recent meta-analysis published in the journal Atherosclerosis, researchers sought to determine the effect of vitamin C supplementation on endothelial function (EF) in adults, and whether the outcome differed by health status, study duration, dose and route of administration.

The study included 44 clinical trials and 1,129 adult participants. Supplemental vitamin C at oral doses of more than 500 mg was associated with significant improvement of endothelial function in subjects with cardio-metabolic disorders. The benefits of supplementation were primarily limited to people with atherosclerosis, diabetes, and heart failure. The study design, duration of supplementation, route of administration and baseline plasma vitamin C did not appear to significantly affect the outcome. There was a significant positive association between dosages greater than 500 mg/day and improvement in endothelial function.

The researchers noted that in addition to its effects on oxidative stress, vitamin C may positively affect nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator, reducing vascular inflammation. The results of this study indicate that vitamin C supplementation may improve endothelial function, especially in adults with a higher cardiovascular risk. Vitamin C supplementation, therefore, could potentially be a useful tool for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

Source:
Ashor AW et al. Atherosclerosis.2014 Jul; 235(1):9-20.

Type 2 diabetesType 2 diabetes has become a significant worldwide health care challenge, as it is associated with various health problems and increased mortality risk. There is increasing evidence that vitamin D influences many non-skeletal medical conditions, including heart disease, cancer, certain autoimmune diseases and type-2 diabetes. Observational research has shown that seasonal variation in blood sugar control in the winter may be partly due to vitamin D, since vitamin D levels are generally much lower in the winter.

In a study published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers examined the association between vitamin D status and the incidence of Type 2 diabetes. After a thorough review of the literature, 8 observational studies and 11 randomly controlled trials were included in the review.

Intake of >500 IU/day decreased the risk of type 2 diabetes by 13% when compared to those with a vitamin D intake of <200 IU/day; Adults with the highest vitamin D status (>25 ng/ml or 62.5 mmol/L) had a 43% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes when compared to those with the lowest serum vitamin D levels (<14 ng/ml or 35 mmol/L). In two trials that included patients with glucose intolerance, vitamin D supplementation improved measures of insulin resistance. No significant effect of vitamin D on glycemic outcomes was evident in the trials that included subjects with normal glucose tolerance at baseline.

The results of this review show that vitamin D may play a role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, although high-quality studies are needed to determine a potential mechanism between vitamin D concentration and relevant glycemic outcomes.

Source:
J Mitri et al. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65:1005–1015.

New study suggests that vitamin E supplementation has an important role in delaying the onset of the diabetic complications.

Diabetes is accompanied by severe oxidative stress which is caused by increased oxygen free radical production. An imbalance which results from an increased production and/or the reduced scavenging of these free radicals leads to a metabolic state of oxidative stress, which consequently leads to tissue damage.

The damage which is done to the bimolecular by the reactive oxygen species (oxidative damage) is kept in check by a complex network of antioxidant defense and repair systems. One of the best characterized antioxidants is vitamin E, a fat-soluble vitamin that helps in preventing damage to the lipids by the oxygen free radicals. Vitamin E is known to be deficient in diabetes.

A recent prospective clinical study recruited 128 type I and II Diabetic patients with and without complications to investigate the role of vitamin E in preventing the development and the progression of the diabetic complications. These patients were divided separately into the test (which received insulin/oral hypoglycemic and vitamin E) and the control groups (which received only insulin/oral hypoglycemic drugs).

Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Post-prandial Blood Sugar (PPBS), Total Cholesterol (TC), and the Blood Pressure (BP) was monitored at 0(beginning),12,18 and 24 months. Cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and foot ulcer development and progression were also monitored. The data was analyzed by the Z test for the means and for the proportions.

The study found that there was a statistically significant decrease in the post-prandial blood sugar level, total cholesterol level and the diastolic blood pressure in the test groups of both type I Diabetes and type II Diabetes at 24 months as compared to those in the control group. The patients who were on the vitamin E supplementation had a delayed development and a slow progression of diabetic complications.

This study provided evidence that vitamin E supplementation has an important role in delaying the onset of the diabetic complications as well as for slowing down the progression of the complications. However it remains unclear if routine vitamin E supplementation should be recommended to all diabetic patients. Further larger studies are needed to better understand the role of vitamin E in diabetes.

Source:
Jain & Jain; Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2012 December, Vol-6(10): 1624-162

globalwarming awareness2007