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Meta-analysis supports the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids to reduce blood pressure

An analysis of 70 trials reveals that omega-3 supplementation may be as effective at reducing blood pressure as other lifestyle intervention.

Nearly 4 out of 10 Australian adults have elevated blood pressure, which is linked to an increased risk of strokes, coronary heart disease, and total mortality.  A recent metaanalysis published in the American Journal of Hypertension analyzed 70 RCT trials to determine the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on blood pressure.

Weighted differences were used to separate individuals into an EPA+DHA group and a placebo group. All of the studies combined resulted in a 1.52 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure and a 0.99 mm Hg reduction in diastolic blood pressure for the EPA+DHA group over the placebo group.

Additional data was used to further separate these into subgroups for additional analysis. This revealed even stronger effects of EPA+DHA, where a 4.51 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure and a 3.05 mm Hg reduction in diastolic blood pressure were observed among untreated hypertensive subjects. In this subgroup, EPA+DHA treatment was as effective, or more effective, at lowering blood pressure than other lifestyle-intervention including increasing physical activity and restricting alcohol and sodium.

These results continue to build on prior evidence showing that omega-3 fatty acids may play a role in helping individuals control their blood pressure. One of the authors, Dominik Alexander, PhD, noted that “when measuring blood pressure, even small reductions can have a significant clinical impact.” A 2 mm Hg reduction in blood pressure reduces stroke mortality by 6%, coronary heart disease mortality by 4%, and total mortality by 3%.

Overall, available evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) indicates that provision of EPA+DHA reduces systolic blood pressure, while provision of ≥2 grams reduces diastolic blood pressure.

Source:
Miller, P.E. et al. Am J Hypertens. 2014 Mar 6. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:24610882

 

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